Abstract: Geospatial information infrastructures (GIIs) provide the technological, semantic, organizational and legal structure that allow for the discovery, sharing, and use of geospatial information (GI). In this chapter, we introduce the overall concept and surrounding notions such as geographic information systems (GIS) and spatial data infrastructures (SDI). We outline the history of GIIs in terms of the organizational and technological developments as well as the current state-of-art, and reflect on some of the central challenges and possible future trajectories. We focus on the tension between increased needs for standardization and the ever-accelerating technological changes. We conclude that GIIs evolved as a strong underpinning contribution to implementation of the Digital Earth vision. In the future, these infrastructures are challenged to become flexible and robust enough to absorb and embrace technological transformations and the accompanying societal and organizational implications. With this contribution, we present the reader a comprehensive overview of the field and a solid basis for reflections about future developments.
Reference: Sven Schade, Carlos Granell, Glenn Vancauwenberghe, Carsten Keßler, Danny Vandenbroucke, Ian Masser, Michael Gould (2019) Geospatial Information Infrastructures. In: Huadong Guo, Michael Goodchild, Alessandro Annoni (eds.), Manual of Digital Earth, pp. 161–190. Springer/International Society for Digital Earth. DOI:10.1007/978-981-32-9915-3